Guide One: Start Your Family History with the Society of Genealogists
This guide gives an overview of the first steps, resources and websites that can help you start your family history. A PDF of this leaflet can be downloaded for ease of printing. You can read more about the sources mentioned here in our Research Guides.
Ask the Family
Searching for your ancestors must begin with what you know. Collect all the family documents you can and question your relatives: the older ones may know about letters, diaries, papers and dated photographs, while, if you are lucky, a Family Bible will have vital dates. They may be able to estimate ages and suggest locations, even if they cannot give exact details of births, marriages and deaths. Every fact and its source should be noted, as well as vague remarks which can prove unexpectedly useful at a later stage (such as ‘that was before the war’, ‘she was grey at your aunt’s wedding’, ‘I believe an elder brother lived on the south coast and went to Australia or New Zealand’).
Start Reading & Recording
Record what you learn about each relative on a dedicated family history computer software package. Most of the major genealogy software packages can be downloaded free of charge as trial versions. Try several until you find one that suits you. Alternatively use paper files with separate index cards or pages of a loose-leaf notebook. There are many books and websites that will give you advice and tips for your next steps.GENUKI (Genealogical Information on the UK and Ireland) or the BBC website family history pages are useful online guides. M Herber Ancestral Trails (Alan Sutton, 2005) or N Barrat Who Do You Think You Are? Encyclopedia of Genealogy (Harper Collins, 2008) are comprehensive guides. You may want to buy at least one of these, but they should all be available from a public library.
You don’t have to use a computer for family history but one could certainly be of great help. There are several family history magazines available from good newsagents that regularly review genealogical software programmes, websites and include cover discs so you can find which software is right for you. The Society of Genealogists’ online bookshop stocks useful titles and software
If you know an ancestor that was alive a hundred or more years ago, you can consult the official census returns for 1911,1901,1891, 1881, 1871,1861 1851. The censuses are a snapshot of a family on a particular night recording the members of each household, their relationship to its head, ages, occupations and birthplaces. The 1841 census is also available, but is less informative. Microfilms or microfiche of census returns are often held by County Record Offices, Local Libraries or the Society of Genealogists. A complete set for England and Wales, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands can be seen without charge at The National Archives in Kew, www.nationalarchives.gov.uk . The Scottish returns for 1841 to 1911 are available at Scotland’s People Centre in Edinburgh
The first complete Irish census extant is that for 1901, which, with that for 1911, can be seen at the National Archives, Bishop Street, Dublin 7, Eire.
Name indexes make the censuses much easier and quicker to search. There are a lot of indexes available on the Internet, many of which can be searched free at the Society of Genealogists. Links to census indexes for England and Wales can be found on The National Archives website . Scottish census indexes can be linked from Scotland’s People . Online links for Irish censuses can be found from the National Archives of Ireland a
Births, marriages and deaths have been officially recorded by the General Register Office (GRO) for England and Wales since 1 July 1837. The certificates give details of names, dates, ages, addresses and occupations. Each certificate currently costs £9.25 and takes four days to prepare. You will need the appropriate reference from the GRO indexes to order the certificate. Copies of these indexes are available in some libraries including the Society of Genealogists, on microfilm or microfiche. The GRO website has links to the 7 libraries and offices where complete up-to-date indexes can be found. Information from the indexes can be found online on www.freebmd.org.uk , a collaboration between family historians to transcribe the birth marriage and death indexes entries from 1837 up to about 1949 onto the Internet. Not all the indexes are available yet, but there are about 245 million entries and the work is growing all the time. This site has some images of the original indexes as well.
Some commercial organisations such as www.findmypast.co.uk , www.ancestry.co.uk www.bmdindex.co.uk or www.familyrelatives.com have launched digital images or databases compiled from all the indexes for England and Wales up to 2006 to use on a pay per view or subscription basis. All these sites will give the reference needed to obtain a certificate. Prices to view the indexes vary. Some of these sites can be viewed free of charge at the Society of Genealogists.
Once the appropriate index entry is found certificates of birth, marriage and death can be ordered www.gro.gov.uk/gro/content/certificates/ Certificates can also be ordered by post and by telephone. From 1 January 2009 postal applications will only be accepted on the new style application forms which will be available directly from the GRO, Local Register Offices and major city libraries throughout England and Wales which hold copies of the indexes on microfiche. The new style forms must be completed in full and returned by post to the GRO together with the correct payment either by cheque, postal order or credit card. Cheques should be made payable to ‘IPS.’
(Identity and Passport Service) and posted to GRO , PO Box 2, Southport , Merseyside, PR8 2JD. Telephone orders can be made using a debit/credit card from the GRO call centre. Please call 0300 123 1837.
Such events in Scotland from 1855, are available at the Scotland’s People Centre, a joint venture between the General Register Office for Scotland, the National Archives for Scotland and the Court of the Lord Lyon. Scotland’s People Centre, HM General Register House, 2 Princes Street, Edinburgh, EH1 3YY (for details of opening times and search fees www.scotlandspeoplehub.gov.uk/ ).
There are copies of the indexes 1855-1920 on microfilm at the Society of Genealogists in London. Images of the Scottish GRO certificates can be found on the Internet (Births 1855-1911, marriages 1855-1936 and deaths 1855-1961 only) along with indexes up to 2009 via the pay-perview website (www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk). The General Register Office for Northern Ireland was instituted after the creation of Northern Ireland in 1922. However the General Register Office in Belfast has computer indexes of births, Catholic marriages and deaths that occurred in the Province from 1864 and Protestant Marriages from 1845. The General Register Office for Northern Ireland is located at: Oxford House, 49/55 Chichester Street, Belfast, BT1 4HL. Telephone No: 028 90 252000. See www.nidirect.gov.uk for details of search facilities, search fees and opening times. Certificates for the remainder of Ireland from 1864 (and Protestant marriages from 1845) can be obtained in person from the search room of the General Register, Eire at The Research Room, Irish Life Centre, Lower Abbey Street, Dublin 1, Eire. Postal enquiries should be addressed to General Register Office, Government Offices, Convent Road, Roscommon. Tel: 090 6632900. See www.groireland.ie/ for information about fees, opening times and search facilities. Indexes for some birth, marriages and deaths registered in Ireland can be found on: www.familysearch.org
Much useful information can be gleaned from wills and administrations, copies of which for England and Wales back to 1858 may be obtained from the Principal Registry of the Family Division, First Avenue House, 42-49 High Holborn, London WC1V 6NP (open Mon-Fri 104.30). If you cannot get to London to order a copy of a will, then postal applications for searches and copies can be made through the Leeds District Probate Registry using the official PA1S application form. A PDF of this form can be found online. Postal search and copy fees include copies of the Will and/or grant if a record is found. If you want the Probate Registry to conduct a search for a period longer than the standard four years additional fees are charged for each four year period after the first search.
Leeds District Probate Registry, Leeds District, Probate Registry, York House, 31 York Place, Leeds LS1 2BA. Telephone No: 0113 3896133.
For those with something to bequeath, the annual will indexes are often more informative than death certificates. Copies of some of the will indexes after 1858 can be found on www.Ancestry.co.uk and on fiche or film in some libraries and record offices, including the Society of Genealogists.
Wills before 1858 were under the jurisdiction of church courts and are mostly in local repositories, described in J. Gibson and E Churchill, Probate Jurisdictions: Where to Look for Wills (FFHS, 5th edn. 2002). The Society of Genealogists has indexes for wills proved in most church courts and many copies and abstracts of wills amongst its collections.
The records of the highest church court known as the Prerogative Court of Canterbury (PCC) can be searched on line via The National Archives Website
Many record offices are beginning to index and digitise the wills from lesser courts in their collections and the National Will Index on www.Britishorigins.com is making good progress in indexing wills for many church courts.
Before general registration started (1837, 1855, 1864) births and deaths were not recorded as such, but baptisms, marriages and burials were entered in the registers of the appropriate churches or chapels. Some parish (Church of England) registers date from 1538. Most over a hundred years old are now deposited in County Record Offices, though a few remain in parish churches. Access to original registers in public hands is mostly free; for those still at the church the clergy are allowed to make a charge. The whereabouts of any register may be determined from C R Humphery-Smith, The Phillimore Atlas and Index of Parish Registers (Phillimore 2003).
Links to all record office websites can be found via The National Archives ARCHON directory at www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/archon/
Over the years a great many parish registers have been copied or transcribed (perhaps to 1812 or to 1837 or later) and the largest collection of these copies is at the Society of Genealogists. Hundreds of millions of baptisms and marriages from parish registers between 1538 and 1875 have been collectively indexed, by the Genealogical Society of Utah (Mormons) and are available free on line at www.familysearch.org . Most surviving nonconformist registers in England and Wales before 1837 are at The National Archives and the majority (other than Quaker) have been indexed into the FamilySearch website. Most nonconformist records are also available on the Internet on www.bmdregisters.co.uk . Guides to the history and genealogical sources relating to various nonconformist denominations have been published by the Society of Genealogists as part of the My Ancestor … series and are available from the Society’s online bookshop.
All Scottish parish registers are at the ScotlandsPeople Centre in Edinburgh. Few begin before 1750 but all the baptisms and marriages prior to 1855 have been indexed by the Genealogical Society of Utah and again are available on microfiche at various libraries and Family History Centres. They are also available through the website www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk
Many Irish registers have not survived: in the rural areas those which have date only from the early 19th century. In the Republic of Ireland many Church of Ireland Registers have been deposited at the Representative Church Body Library, Braemor Park, Rathgar, Dublin 14 and most of those of the Roman Catholics are on microfilm at the National Archives, Bishop Street, Dublin 7. Records from parishes in Northern Ireland, which are not retained in parish custody, are deposited in the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast. For further details about research in Ireland consult J Grenham, Tracing your Irish ancestors (Gill and Macmillan Dublin, 2006).
When you have exhausted the records of civil registration and have begun to look at the parish registers of the area from which your family came you will need to consult the other sources available in the County Record Office. Here you will find other parish records such as accounts, rate books and poor law records along with local wills proved before 1858, the records of the administration of the county (including the Land Tax records, at least from 1780 onwards), and the records of local land or estate owners.
The Society of Genealogists
Anyone undertaking their family history should consider visiting the Society of Genealogists at 14 Charterhouse Buildings, Goswell Road, London EC1M 7BA (open Tues, Wed, Sat,10-6; Thur 10-8). Its remarkable library of over 120,000 books, CDs, databases and microform holds many local sources for the places where your ancestors lived. It collects research notes and published family histories and biographies along with special collections of genealogical research compiled over the last century. Free Internet access is given to certain genealogical pay per view or subscription sites. There are sources for the armed services, professional and trade directories; apprenticeship records, school and university lists, will and marriage licence indexes and much, much more. Information on using the library can be found on the Society’s website www.sog.org.uk where you can also find links to its free on-line library catalogue and information on the Library search/copy service. Internet access to many SoG indexes and databases is available exclusively to its members as MySoG which is part of the website.
You need not be a member of the Society of Genealogists as the collection is open to all searchers on payment of hourly or daily search fees, which are outlined on the Society’s website. If, however, you join (details available on the SoG website) you also benefit from the quarterly Genealogists’ Magazine, access to SoG data online, discounts on some publications, lectures and seminars, courses for beginners and for more advanced searchers. Free tours and family history advice sessions are held on alternate Saturdays in the Library. Details of the SoG’s telephone family history advice line can be found on the SoG website.
The Genealogical Community
In addition to the Society of Genealogists there are many local family history societies and membership of those in your area and where your family came from may be helpful. A full list can be obtained from the Federation of Family History Societies, website www.ffhs.org.uk. TheFederation has no library and does not undertake research.
The World Wide Web is the most popular means of communication between family historians. Two useful genealogical reference sites are GENUKI www.genuki.org.uk and Cyndi’s List www.cyndislist.com . Social network sites such as Genes Reunited and Rootsweb can be a good way to contact other researchers. The Society of Genealogists has its own members’ email list which is a useful way of seeking support and help from other SoG members. News from and about the Society and the genealogical community can also be found on our blog.
If you are not in a position yourself to trace your family, or if you need help in distant parts of the United Kingdom, or with documents in Latin or difficult handwriting, there are professional searchers who undertake such work. The Association of Genealogists Researchers in Archives (AGRA) was founded to promote high standards among genealogists and publishes a list of members who undertake research. This is available from the AGRA website www.agra.org.uk
©Society of Genealogists 2012
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